PCOS: What are its Causes, Symptoms & Treatments?

Table of Contents

What is PCOS?

What are the Causes of PCOS?

The specific reason isn’t surely known, yet including a mix of Hereditary and natural factors is accepted. A few potential Contributing elements include:

(1) Hormonal Imbalance

(2) Insulin Resistance

(3) Genetics

PCOS has a strong Relation with Genes as it is also a strong cause of PCOS. If your mother or sister is affected by PCOS, then Your chances of getting PCOS become higher. So if you have any case in your family, you must pay attention to your Medical Examination.

causes of pcos

What are the Effects of PCOS:

PCOS can have various effects on the body, both Reproductive and Metabolic. Some potential effects include:

Ovulatory Dysfunction: Anovulation (lack of ovulation) or irregular Ovulation can lead to fertility problems.
Acne and Skin Changes: Higher androgens can contribute to acne and changes in the skin, such as increased oiliness.
Cardiovascular Risks: Long-term, PCOS may increase the risk of cardiovascular diseases.
Menstrual Irregularities: PCOS often causes irregular or missed menstrual periods due to the disruption of normal ovulation.
Ovarian Cysts: Small fluid-filled sacs (cysts) may form on the ovaries.
Insulin Resistance and Diabetes: PCOS is associated with an increased risk of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes.
Weight Gain: Many individuals with PCOS experience weight gain, and obesity can worsen symptoms.
Hirsutism: Increased hair growth on the face, chest, back, or other areas due to elevated Androgen levels.

What are the Symptoms of PCOS?

Common Symptoms of PCOS include:

Hirsutism (excessive hair growth)
Irregular menstrual cycles or absence of periods
Ovulatory dysfunction and fertility issues
Acne and oily skin
Mood changes, such as depression and anxiety
Weight gain, especially around the abdomen
Thinning hair on the scalp
Darkening of the skin, especially in skin folds

Diagnosis and Management Classically involve an Arrangement of Medical History, Physical Examination, and Laboratory Tests. Treatment may include Lifestyle Modifications, medications to Regulate Hormones, and Addressing specific Symptoms or Concerns.

How Does Screening and Evaluation of PCOS Occur?

Treatments of PCOS

(1) Medical History and Physical Examination:

For better results, it is recommended to have a meeting with your Healthcare Provider. He/she will ask about your Detailed Medical History, including Menstrual patterns, Symptoms, and Family history

(2) Blood Tests:

Glucose levels: A blood glucose test is conducted to assess the resistance power of insulin.
Lipid profile: this test is conducted to check the cholesterol level of the blood. Examples included are Total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and triglycerides.
Hormone levels: Blood serum tests are conducted to assess the level of hormones such as testosterone, luteinizing hormone (LH), Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and insulin.

(3) Pelvic Ultrasound:

(4) Other Tests:

Thyroid function tests can also be useful to identify thyroid disorders that can lead to association with PCOS.
· Screening for other conditions associated with PCOS, such as Diabetes.

What are the Treatments for PCOS?

(1) Lifestyle Modifications:

Lifestyle Modifications are basic treatments for PCOS. it helps manage symptoms and improve overall health. Regular exercise supports weight management, reduces insulin resistance, and lowers Androgen levels. A Balanced diet aiming at Whole foods, Fiber, and Healthy fats Stabilizes Blood sugar and hormone levels. Stress Reduction methods like Meditation or yoga can lessen Stress-related symptoms. Combined, these changes can regulate Menstrual cycles, enhance Fertility, and reduce long-term health risks associated with it.

(2) Medications:

(2.1) Hormonal Regulation

Drugs like Anti-Conception medication pills manage Monthly cycles, lessen Androgen levels, and lessen side effects, for example, Skin inflammation and Hirsutism by restoring Hormonal balance.

(2.2) Insulin Sensitizers

(2.3) Anti-Androgen Drugs

(2.4) Fertility Medications

Clomiphene citrate or Letrozole stimulates Ovulation in Females attempting to imagine by controlling hormone levels and advancing Egg discharge.

(2.5) Gonadotropins

Infusions of Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone(LH) can trigger Ovulation in Females impervious to other Fertility medicines.

These Medications address various parts of PCOS, Focusing on side effects and basic Hormonal irregular characteristics to work on general health and Fertility.

(3) Fertility Treatments:

(3.1) Ovulation Induction

 Fertility meds like clomiphene citrate or letrozole stimulate Ovulation, assisting PCOS patients with Conception.

(3.2) In vitro Fertilization (IVF)

IVF includes Recovering Eggs from the Ovaries, treating them with Sperm in a lab, and moving coming about undeveloped Organisms into the Uterus, bypassing ovulation issues.

(3.3) Gonadotropin Therapy

Injectable Hormones (Gonadotropins) stimulate Ovulation in females who don’t respond to oral drugs.

(3.4) Surgery (Ovarian Drilling)

(4) Weight Management:

(4.1) Improvement of Insulin Sensitivity

Maintaining a Healthy weight through diet and exercise improves Insulin Sensitivity, reducing hyperinsulinemia, a Common Feature of PCOS. This can help Regulate Menstrual cycles and lessen Androgen levels.

(4.2) Weight Loss as a Treatment Strategy

Excess weight impairs PCOS Symptoms by increasing insulin resistance and Hormonal Imbalances. Weight loss can improve Menstrual irregularities, Fertility, and Metabolic Indicators.

(4.3) Enhanced Fertility

Weight management can increase the Probability of Ovulation, improving Fertility in Women with PCOS. Even Diffident weight loss can have significant benefits for Reproductive results.

(4.4) Long-Term Health Benefits

Beyond symptom management, weight management reduces the risk of long-term difficulties associated with PCOS, such as type 2 Diabetes and CVDs.

(4.5) Reduction of Androgen Levels

Weight loss can lower androgen levels, reducing symptoms like hirsutism and acne. This is particularly significant as high androgen levels subsidize its signs.

(5) Psychotherapy:

This technique plays its role in PCOS due to the following parameters:

(5.1) Stress Reduction

(5.2) Lifestyle Modification

 Psychotherapy helps in the development of Healthy Lifestyle changes, including diet and exercise loyalty, vital for Managing PCOS-related symptoms.

(5.3) Mental Health

Psychotherapy helps achieve Anxiety, Depression, and Body shape concerns often Associated with PCOS, Improving overall health.

(5.4) Improving Self-Esteem

Therapy indorses Self-acceptance and Self-esteem, Empowering individuals to direct challenges Associated with PCOS with confidence and Flexibility.

(5.5) Managing Strategies

Therapeutic Mediations equip Individuals with effective Management Mechanisms to deal with the emotional peak of PCOS symptoms.

(6) Hair Removal Methods:

(6.1) Symptom Management

(6.2) Personal Confidence

 PCOS-related hirsutism can cause trouble and bring down confidence. Powerful hair removal can further develop certainty and mental prosperity.

(6.3) Upgrading Personal Satisfaction

By decreasing apparent indications of hyperandrogenism, hair removal strategies add to better personal satisfaction for people with PCOS, facilitating social and inner difficulties related to the condition.

(6.4) Complementary to Medical Treatments

While not tending to the fundamental hormonal inequality, hair removal complements clinical medicines like hormonal contraceptives or anti-androgen meds in managing side effects comprehensively.

(6.5) Long-term Management

 Ordinary utilization of hair removal techniques guarantees continuous administration of hirsutism, supporting people in keeping up with their ideal appearance and managing its side effects effectively.

(7) Surgery:

Surgery is considered for Polycystic Ovary Condition (PCOS) when prescriptions and way of life change neglect to oversee side effects, especially in cases of extreme infertility or complications.

Symptoms of PCOS

Ovarian Drilling

The technique includes making little entry points in the ovaries utilizing a laser or a warmed needle.
The point is to decrease the abundance of ovarian androgen formation, further developing ovulation and feminine consistency.
May improve richness and lower androgen levels, frequently considered for ladies who are not responding to different medicines.


This term means Surgical removal of one or both ovaries.
Saved for extreme instances of PCOS with extreme side effects or difficulties like ovarian cancer risk.
It can improve symptoms but results in permanent infertility and requires hormone replacement therapy.


All in all, PCOS is a complex Hormonal problem with broad impacts on ladies’ well-being. Its causes are multi-layered, including hereditary, ecological, and lifestyle factors. Observing the side effects early is pivotal for suitable intervention and management. While treatments vary and often include medication, way of life changes, for example, diet and exercise assume a huge part in reducing side effects and working on general personal satisfaction for those living with PCOS.

Muhammad Rehman Saleem

Muhammad Rehman Saleem

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